発表力養成英語

E S L の英文法

◆Infinitives & Gerunds
不定詞と動名詞~目的語として~




Part I: 目的語としての不定詞

動詞 afford, agree, claim, consent, decide, fail, learn, manage, offer, plan, pretend, refuse, seem, swear, threaten, wait, would like は、動名詞ではなく不定詞のみを目的語とします。

  

< INCORRECT >
She decided accepting his propose.

< REVISED >
She decided to accept his propose.
(彼女は彼のプロポーズを受け入れることを決心した。)


< INCORRECT >
She swore not scolding her childes hysterically.

< INCORRECT >
She swore to not scold her childes hysterically.

< REVISED >
She swore not to scold her childes hysterically.
(彼女は子供達をヒステリックに叱らないことを自分に誓った。)
not は不定詞の前に置きます。 】



動詞 allow, ask, cause, challenge, command, convince, decide, encourage, expect, forbid, force, instruct, invite, need, order, persuade, remind, require, teach, tell, understand, urge, warn, would like は、名詞・代名詞の後に、動名詞ではなく、不定詞を置きます。

  

The librarian reminded me to have some due books.
The doctor forbade me to drink alcohol.



動詞 decide, need, want, would like は、動詞の直後でも、名詞・代名詞の後でも、不定詞を置くことができます。

  

I wanted to ask her out.

She wanted me to ask her out.


“I would like to go the bathroom.”
(トイレに行きたいのですが。)

“The interviewer would like you to enter the room.”
(面接官があなたに部屋に入るように申しております。)



使役動詞 let, have, make は、名詞・代名詞を直後に置き、その後に動詞の原形を置きます。 ちなみに、それぞれの同意語は、

  

let = allow
have = require
make = cause

です。ですので、使役動詞のそれぞれの使役力の順番は、 let < have < make です。

  

< INCORRECT >
My sister had her children to eat with good manners.

< CORRECT >
My sister had her children eat with good manners.

< CORRECT >
My sister did not let her children eat too much ice cream.

< CORRECT >
Her children’s good behaviors at table made her eat at ease.




Part II: 目的語としての動名詞

動詞 admit, appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, discuss, dislike, enjoy, finish, imagine, keep, mention, mind, miss, postpone, practice, resent, resist, risk, suggest, tolerate は、不定詞ではなく動名詞のみを目的語とします。

  

< INCORRECT >
I cannot help to drink beer every night.

< REVISED >
I cannot help drinking beer every night.
(ついつい毎晩、ビールを飲んでしまうのです。)



動詞 appreciate, cannot help, consider, delay, enjoy, imagine, mention, mind, postpone, report, resent, resist, risk, suggest, tolerate, understand は、名詞・代名詞の所有格を伴った動名詞を目的語とすることできます。その名詞・代名詞がその動名詞の動作をすることを意味します。

  

“Do you mind my smoking here?”
“Yes, I definitely do.

The email mentioned his not being able to attend the meeting.
(彼はメールで、そのミーティングに参加できないと私に知らせた。)
not は動名詞の前に置きます。 】



句を構成する前置詞 of, in, on, for, to, about の目的語になれるのは、不定詞ではなく、動名詞です。

  

apologize for
approve of
be afraid of
be interested in
be tired of
be used to
believe in
depend on
look forward to
talk about

上記以外にも、前置詞を含む句はたくさんありますので、ご自身で出会ったらリストアップしてみてください(笑)。

  

I am looking forward to seeing you again.

I am used to speaking in public.

look forward tobe used toto は、前置詞です。混乱しませんように。




Part III: 目的語として不定詞か、動名詞かを選ぶ

動詞 begin, continue, hate, like, love, prefer, start は、目的語として不定詞でも動名詞でも意味を変えずに使うことができます。

  

I prefer to eat rice for breakfast.
I prefer eating rice for breakfast.



知覚動詞 hear, look at, notice, see, smell, watch は、原形と動名詞のどちらでも使うことができます。ただし、原形と動名詞で微妙に意味が変わります。

  

I saw a infant slip on a road.
(幼児が道で転ぶのを見た。)
[ I watched the whole accident. ]

I saw a infant crying on a road.
(幼児が道で泣いているのを見た。)
[ The girl was in progress when I noticed it. ]



動詞 forget, remember, stop, try は、目的語として不定詞を使うか、動名詞を使うかによって意味が異なります。

下記のように、日本語訳よりも英語訳の方が、よりわかりやすいと思います。

  

< INFINITIVE >
I forget to buy a head of lettuce.
[ I forgot to buy it. ]

< GERUND >
I forget buying a head of lettuce.
[ I forgot taht I had bought it. ]


< INFINITIVE >
I remembered to turn off the light.
[ I did not forget to turn off the light. ]

< GERUND >
I remembered turning off the light.
[ I remember that I turned off the light. ]


< INFINITIVE >
I stopped to watch the news on TV.
[ I quit what I was doing to watch the news on TV. ]

< GERUND >
I stopped watching the news on TV.
[ I ended watching the news on TV. ]


< INFINITIVE >
“Please try to escape from this traffic jam.”
[ Attempt to escape from it. ]

< GERUND >
Try turning that corner.”
[ See if we can pass the road after turning that corner. ]



動詞 allow, permit は、名詞・代名詞の目的語を置かない時、動名詞を目的語にします。名詞・代名詞の目的語を置く時、不定詞を目的語にします。

  

<名詞・代名詞の目的語を伴わない場合>
The rules does not allow living with pets in the apartment.

<名詞・代名詞の目的語を伴う場合>
The rules does not allow the occupants to live with pets in the apartment.